Engineering Disasters
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Purdue OWL staff Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab
The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.
APA regulates: ��� Stylistics ��� In-text citations ��� References
What is APA Style?
Personal pronouns where appropriate
������: ���We conducted an experiment������ ������: ���The authors conducted an experiment���.���
Active voice rather than passive voice
������: ���We asked participants questions.��� ������: ���The participants have been asked questions by the researchers.���
Point of View &Voice
Language in an APA paper should be:
��� Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations
��� Concise: condense information when you can
��� Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language
Language
The Literature Review: ��� Summarizes scientific literature on a particular research topic
��� Includes: ��� a title page, ��� introduction, and ��� a list of references
Types of APA Papers
The Experimental Report: ��� Describes your experimental research
��� Includes: ��� a title page, ��� abstract, ��� introduction, ��� methods, results, and discussion sections, ��� a list of references, ��� appendices, ��� tables, and ��� figures
Types of APA Papers
If your paper fits neither category:
���Follow the general format
���Consult the instructor
���Consult the APA Publication Manual
Types of APA Papers
Your essay should: ���be typed, ���double-spaced, ���have 1��� margins, ���use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New Roman), and ���be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5���x 11���)
[Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA manual).]
General APA Format
Every page of your essay should: ���Include a page header (Title, all caps) in the upper left- hand corner and ���the page number in the upper right
General APA Format
Your essay should include four major sections:
References
Main Body
Abstract
Title page
General APA Format
Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right.
Title Page
Page header: do NOT include ���Running head:���
Abstract: centered, at the top of the page
Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner.
Abstract Page
��� Number the first text page as page number 3
��� Type and center the title of the paper at the top of the page
��� Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break
��� Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical, in-text citations
��� Format tables and figures
Main Body (Text)
��� Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.
��� Double-space reference entries
��� Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines
��� Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work
Reference Page
��� Invert authors��� names (last name first followed by initials)
��� EX:���Smith, J.Q.���
��� Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize
the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
��� EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay.
References: Basics
��� Capitalize all major words in journal titles
��� Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals
��� Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
References: Basics
APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
1. Identify the type of source: Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage?
2. Find a sample citation for this type of source Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
3. ���Mirror��� the sample
4. Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics)
Making the Reference List
In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: ��� the author���s name and the date of publication
��� for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author���s name, date of publication, and a page number
In-text Citation: Basics
When quoting: ���Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
���Include the author���s name, year of publication, and page number
���Keep the citation brief���do not repeat the information
In-Text Citation: Quotations
Provide the author���s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
Include the author���s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:
According to Xavier (2008), ������.��� (p. 3).
Xavier (2008) argued that ������������ (p. 3).
Use such signal verbs such as:
acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.
Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events.
In-Text Citation: Signal Words
When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list���the author���s name, the year of publication���
separated by a semi- colon.
In-Text Citation: Two or More Works
When citing a work with two authors, use In the signal phrase, use ���and��� in between the authors��� names
In parenthesis, use ���&��� between names
In-Text Citation: Works with Two Authors
When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.
(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Harklau et al., 1993)
In-Text Citation: Works with 3-5 Authors
When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author���s name followed by ���et al.���
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that���.
(Smith et al., 2006)
In-Text Citation: Works with 6+ Authors
When citing a work of unknown author: ���use the source���s full title in the signal phrase ���cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in
parenthesis.
According to ���Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System��� (2008) OR (���Indiana,��� 2008)
Titles: Articles and Chapters = ��� ��� Books and Reports = italicize
In-Text Citation: Unknown Author
When citing an organization:
���mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.
���If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later
citations.
In-Text Citation: Organization
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names.
(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the
references.
Smith���s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants���
In-Text Citation: Same Last Name/Author
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator���s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
In-Text Citation: Personal Communication
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph
number/paragraph heading.
In-Text Citation: Electronic Sources
APA uses a system of five heading levels
APA Headings
Level Format 1 Centered, Boldfaced, Upper & Lowercase Headings 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase Headings 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a
period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
Headings
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Headings
Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced.
Cite a source in a note below the table.
Table 1 Internet users in Europe Country Regular Users France 9 ml Note: The data are adapted from ���The European Union and Russia��� (2007). Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Tables
Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left .
You might provide an additional title centered above the figure.
Cite the source below the label and the title.
Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical Books, 2007, Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Figures
The Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu
The Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226
Composition textbooks
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA���s website: http://www.apastyle.org
Additional Resources
The End
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab

 

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Engineering Disasters
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Purdue OWL staff Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab
The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.
APA regulates: ��� Stylistics ��� In-text citations ��� References
What is APA Style?
Personal pronouns where appropriate
������: ���We conducted an experiment������ ������: ���The authors conducted an experiment���.���
Active voice rather than passive voice
������: ���We asked participants questions.��� ������: ���The participants have been asked questions by the researchers.���
Point of View &Voice
Language in an APA paper should be:
��� Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations
��� Concise: condense information when you can
��� Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language
Language
The Literature Review: ��� Summarizes scientific literature on a particular research topic
��� Includes: ��� a title page, ��� introduction, and ��� a list of references
Types of APA Papers
The Experimental Report: ��� Describes your experimental research
��� Includes: ��� a title page, ��� abstract, ��� introduction, ��� methods, results, and discussion sections, ��� a list of references, ��� appendices, ��� tables, and ��� figures
Types of APA Papers
If your paper fits neither category:
���Follow the general format
���Consult the instructor
���Consult the APA Publication Manual
Types of APA Papers
Your essay should: ���be typed, ���double-spaced, ���have 1��� margins, ���use 10-12pt. Standard font (ex. Times New Roman), and ���be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5���x 11���)
[Note: If you are writing a manuscript draft, APA suggests using two spaces between sentences to aid readability (see pp.87-88 in the APA manual).]
General APA Format
Every page of your essay should: ���Include a page header (Title, all caps) in the upper left- hand corner and ���the page number in the upper right
General APA Format
Your essay should include four major sections:
References
Main Body
Abstract
Title page
General APA Format
Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right.
Title Page
Page header: do NOT include ���Running head:���
Abstract: centered, at the top of the page
Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner.
Abstract Page
��� Number the first text page as page number 3
��� Type and center the title of the paper at the top of the page
��� Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break
��� Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical, in-text citations
��� Format tables and figures
Main Body (Text)
��� Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.
��� Double-space reference entries
��� Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines
��� Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work
Reference Page
��� Invert authors��� names (last name first followed by initials)
��� EX:���Smith, J.Q.���
��� Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize
the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
��� EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay.
References: Basics
��� Capitalize all major words in journal titles
��� Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals
��� Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
References: Basics
APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
1. Identify the type of source: Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage?
2. Find a sample citation for this type of source Check a textbook or the OWL APA Guide: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
3. ���Mirror��� the sample
4. Make sure that the entries are listed in alphabetical order and that the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics)
Making the Reference List
In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.
Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: ��� the author���s name and the date of publication
��� for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author���s name, date of publication, and a page number
In-text Citation: Basics
When quoting: ���Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
���Include the author���s name, year of publication, and page number
���Keep the citation brief���do not repeat the information
In-Text Citation: Quotations
Provide the author���s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
Include the author���s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:
In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase
Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:
According to Xavier (2008), ������.��� (p. 3).
Xavier (2008) argued that ������������ (p. 3).
Use such signal verbs such as:
acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.
Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events.
In-Text Citation: Signal Words
When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list���the author���s name, the year of publication���
separated by a semi- colon.
In-Text Citation: Two or More Works
When citing a work with two authors, use In the signal phrase, use ���and��� in between the authors��� names
In parenthesis, use ���&��� between names
In-Text Citation: Works with Two Authors
When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.
(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Harklau et al., 1993)
In-Text Citation: Works with 3-5 Authors
When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author���s name followed by ���et al.���
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that���.
(Smith et al., 2006)
In-Text Citation: Works with 6+ Authors
When citing a work of unknown author: ���use the source���s full title in the signal phrase ���cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in
parenthesis.
According to ���Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System��� (2008) OR (���Indiana,��� 2008)
Titles: Articles and Chapters = ��� ��� Books and Reports = italicize
In-Text Citation: Unknown Author
When citing an organization:
���mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.
���If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later
citations.
In-Text Citation: Organization
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names.
(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the
references.
Smith���s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants���
In-Text Citation: Same Last Name/Author
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator���s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
In-Text Citation: Personal Communication
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph
number/paragraph heading.
In-Text Citation: Electronic Sources
APA uses a system of five heading levels
APA Headings
Level Format 1 Centered, Boldfaced, Upper & Lowercase Headings 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Upper & Lowercase Headings 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a
period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
Headings
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Headings
Label tables with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and title appear on separate lines above the table, flush-left and single-spaced.
Cite a source in a note below the table.
Table 1 Internet users in Europe Country Regular Users France 9 ml Note: The data are adapted from ���The European Union and Russia��� (2007). Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Tables
Label figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a title. The label and the title appear on the same line below the figure, flush-left .
You might provide an additional title centered above the figure.
Cite the source below the label and the title.
Figure 1. Internet users in Europe. Adapted from The European Union and Russia: Statistical comparison by Eurostat Statistical Books, 2007, Retrieved from
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
Figures
The Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu
The Purdue Writing Lab @ HEAV 226
Composition textbooks
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA���s website: http://www.apastyle.org
Additional Resources
The End
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Brought to you in cooperation with the Purdue Online Writing Lab

 

"Get 20% OFF on a Similar Assignment!! Place Your Order and Use this Coupon Code: SUPER20"

buy custom essays