150 word response with 1 scholary source with citation less than 5 years old apa format
David posted Feb 7, 2019 5:28 PM

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Each year in the United States, about 237,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women and about 2,100 in men. About 41,000 women in the U.S. die each year from breast cancer. Over the last decade, the risk of getting breast cancer has not changed for women overall, but the risk has increased for black women and Asian and Pacific Islander women. Black women have a higher risk of death from breast cancer than white women. The risk of getting breast cancer goes up with age. In the United States, the average age when women are diagnosed with breast cancer is 61 (CDC, 2017).
Although breast cancer is the second cause of cancer related death of women next to lung cancer, death rates have actually decreased, particularly in women younger than 50 years of age. The decline in the breast cancer mortality rate since 1989 is due to earlier diagnosis through screening programs and increased awareness, as well as improvements in cancer treatment (Grossman, & Porth, 2014).
The clinician is in valuable position to teach the patient and significant others regarding breast cancer prevention and detection and to reinforce information about a breast cancer diagnosis and treatment options which include the following: Breast self-exam technique; review screening recommendation; breast cancer patient needs to learn how to prevent potential postsurgical and/or radiation therapy complications such as lymphedema; breast cancer patient should be taught about the pharmacological and nonpharmacological management for the adverse effects of potential chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy; and counsel and support the patient significant others and to direct them to the many breast cancer resources available to the public that offer individual and group counseling services (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2015).
The ACS recommends that women with an average risk of breast cancer should undergo regular screening mammography starting at age 45 years (strong recommendation). Women aged 45 to 54 years should be screened annually (qualified recommendation). Women 55 years and older should transition to biennial screening or have the opportunity to continue screening annually (qualified recommendation). Women should have the opportunity to begin annual screening between the ages of 40 and 44 years (qualified recommendation). Women should continue screening mammography as long as their overall health is good and they have a life expectancy of 10 years or longer (Oeffinger, Fontham, Etzioni, 2015).
Approximately one third of cancer deaths among men and women are related to diet and sedentary lifestyle factors. The introduction of a healthy diet and exercise practices at any time from childhood to old age can promote health and likely reduce cancer risk. An overall dietary pattern that balances caloric intake and physical activity for weight management along with inclusion of a high proportion of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans) and limited amounts of processed or red meats, dairy products (for men), and high-calorie/low nutritional value foods and beverages can reduce the risk of cancer (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Breast Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/index….
Dunphy, L.M., Winland-Brown, J.L., Porter, B.O., & Thomas, D.J. (2015). Primary Care. The Art and Science of Advanced Practice Nursing (4th Ed). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
Edelman, C.L., Kudzma, E.C., & Mandle, C.L. (2014). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (8th Ed). St Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.
Grossman, S.C., & Porth, C.M. (2014). Porth’s Pathophysiology. Concepts of Altered Health States (Ninth Ed). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Oeffinger, K.C., Fontham, E.T.H., Etzioni, R. (2015). Breast Cancer Screening for Women at
Average Risk: 2015 Guideline Update From the American Cancer Society. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/….


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