Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Changes made to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and texts are outlined in this chapter in the same order in which they appear in the DSM-5 classification. This is not an exhaustive guide; minor changes in text or wording made for clarity are not described here. It should also be noted that Section I of DSM-5 con- tains a description of changes pertaining to the chapter organization in DSM-5, the multiaxial system, and the introduction of dimensional assessments (in Section III).
Terminology The phrase “general medical condition” is replaced in DSM-5 with “another medical condition” where relevant across all disorders.
Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder) Diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) emphasize the need for an assessment of both cognitive capacity (IQ) and adaptive functioning. Severity is determined by adaptive functioning rather than IQ score. The term mental retardation was used in DSM-IV. However, intellectual disability is the term that has come into common use over the past two decades among medical, educational, and other professionals, and by the lay public and advocacy groups. Moreover, a federal statue in the United States (Public Law 111-256, Rosa’s Law) replaces the term “mental retarda- tion with intellectual disability. Despite the name change, the deficits in cognitive capacity beginning in the developmental period, with the accompanying diagnostic criteria, are considered to constitute a mental disorder. The term intellectual developmental disorder was placed in parentheses to reflect the World Health Organization’s classification system, which lists “disorders” in the International Classifica- tion of Diseases (ICD; ICD-11 to be released in 2015) and bases all “disabilities” on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Because the ICD-11 will not be adopted for several years, intellectual disability was chosen as the current preferred term with the bridge term for the future in parentheses. Communication Disorders The DSM-5 communication disorders include language disorder (which combines DSM-IV expressive and mixed receptive-expressive language disorders), speech sound disorder (a new name for phono- logical disorder), and childhood-onset fluency disorder (a new name for stuttering). Also included is social (pragmatic) communication disorder, a new condition for persistent difficulties in the social uses of verbal and nonverbal communication. Because social communication deficits are one component of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is important to note that social (pragmatic) communication disorder cannot be diagnosed in the presence of restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (the oth- er component of ASD). The symptoms of some patients diagnosed with DSM-IV pervasive developmen- tal disorder not otherwise specified may meet the DSM-5 criteria for social communication disorder.
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorder is a new DSM-5 name that reflects a scientific consensus that four previously separate disorders are actually a single condition with different levels of symptom severity in two core
2 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
domains. ASD now encompasses the previous DSM-IV autistic disorder (autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD is characterized by 1) deficits in social communication and social interaction and 2) restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (RRBs). Because both components are required for diagnosis of ASD, social communication disorder is diagnosed if no RRBs are present.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 are similar to those in DSM-IV. The same 18 symptoms are used as in DSM-IV, and continue to be divided into two symp- tom domains (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), of which at least six symptoms in one domain are required for diagnosis. However, several changes have been made in DSM-5: 1) examples have been added to the criterion items to facilitate application across the life span; 2) the cross-situational requirement has been strengthened to “several” symptoms in each setting; 3) the onset criterion has been changed from “symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years” to “several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12”; 4) subtypes have been replaced with presentation specifiers that map directly to the prior subtypes; 5) a comorbid diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder is now allowed; and 6) a symptom threshold change has been made for adults, to reflect their substantial evidence of clinically significant ADHD impairment, with the cutoff for ADHD of five symptoms, instead of six required for younger persons, both for inattention and for hyperactivity and impulsivity. Finally, ADHD was placed in the neurodevelopmental disorders chapter to reflect brain developmental correlates with ADHD and the DSM-5 decision to eliminate the DSM-IV chapter that includes all diagnoses usually first made in infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
Specific Learning Disorder Specific learning disorder combines the DSM-IV diagnoses of reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, and learning disorder not otherwise specified. Because learning deficits in the areas of reading, written expression, and mathematics commonly occur together, coded speci- fiers for the deficit types in each area are included. The text acknowledges that specific types of read- ing deficits are described internationally in various ways as dyslexia and specific types of mathematics deficits as dyscalculia.
Motor Disorders The following motor disorders are included in the DSM-5 neurodevelopmental disorders chapter: devel- opmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, Tourette’s disorder, persistent (chron- ic) motor or vocal tic disorder, provisional tic disorder, other specified tic disorder, and unspecified tic disorder. The tic criteria have been standardized across all of these disorders in this chapter. Stereotypic movement disorder has been more clearly differentiated from body-focused repetitive behavior disor- ders that are in the DSM-5 obsessive-compulsive disorder chapter.
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Two changes were made to DSM-IV Criterion A for schizophrenia. The first change is the elimination of the special attribution of bizarre delusions and Schneiderian first-rank auditory hallucinations (e.g., two or more voices conversing). In DSM-IV, only one such symptom was needed to meet the diagnostic requirement for Criterion A, instead of two of the other listed symptoms. This special attribution was
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 3
removed due to the nonspecificity of Schneiderian symptoms and the poor reliability in distinguishing bizarre from nonbizarre delusions. Therefore, in DSM-5, two Criterion A symptoms are required for any diagnosis of schizophrenia. The second change is the addition of a requirement in Criterion A that the individual must have at least one of these three symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech. At least one of these core “positive symptoms” is necessary for a reliable diagnosis of schizo- phrenia.
Schizophrenia subtypes The DSM-IV subtypes of schizophrenia (i.e., paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual types) are eliminated due to their limited diagnostic stability, low reliability, and poor validity. These subtypes also have not been shown to exhibit distinctive patterns of treatment response or lon- gitudinal course. Instead, a dimensional approach to rating severity for the core symptoms of schizo- phrenia is included in Section III to capture the important heterogeneity in symptom type and severity expressed across individuals with psychotic disorders.
Schizoaffective Disorder The primary change to schizoaffective disorder is the requirement that a major mood episode be pres- ent for a majority of the disorder’s total duration after Criterion A has been met. This change was made on both conceptual and psychometric grounds. It makes schizoaffective disorder a longitudinal instead of a cross-sectional diagnosis—more comparable to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depres- sive disorder, which are bridged by this condition. The change was also made to improve the reliability, diagnostic stability, and validity of this disorder, while recognizing that the characterization of patients with both psychotic and mood symptoms, either concurrently or at different points in their illness, has been a clinical challenge.
Delusional Disorder Criterion A for delusional disorder no longer has the requirement that the delusions must be non- bizarre. A specifier for bizarre type delusions provides continuity with DSM-IV. The demarcation of delusional disorder from psychotic variants of obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder is explicitly noted with a new exclusion criterion, which states that the symptoms must not be better explained by conditions such as obsessive-compulsive or body dysmorphic disorder with absent insight/delusional beliefs. DSM-5 no longer separates delusional disorder from shared delusional dis- order. If criteria are met for delusional disorder then that diagnosis is made. If the diagnosis cannot be made but shared beliefs are present, then the diagnosis “other specified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder” is used.
Catatonia The same criteria are used to diagnose catatonia whether the context is a psychotic, bipolar, depres- sive, or other medical disorder, or an unidentified medical condition. In DSM-IV, two out of five symp- tom clusters were required if the context was a psychotic or mood disorder, whereas only one symp- tom cluster was needed if the context was a general medical condition. In DSM-5, all contexts require three catatonic symptoms (from a total of 12 characteristic symptoms). In DSM-5, catatonia may be diagnosed as a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; as a separate diagnosis in the context of another medical condition; or as an other specified diagnosis.
4 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Bipolar and Related Disorders Bipolar Disorders To enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and facilitate earlier detection in clinical settings, Criterion A for manic and hypomanic episodes now includes an emphasis on changes in activity and energy as well as mood. The DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, mixed episode, requiring that the individual simulta- neously meet full criteria for both mania and major depressive episode, has been removed. Instead, a new specifier, “with mixed features,” has been added that can be applied to episodes of mania or hy- pomania when depressive features are present, and to episodes of depression in the context of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder when features of mania/hypomania are present.
Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorder DSM-5 allows the specification of particular conditions for other specified bipolar and related disorder, including categorization for individuals with a past history of a major depressive disorder who meet all criteria for hypomania except the duration criterion (i.e., at least 4 consecutive days). A second condi- tion constituting an other specified bipolar and related disorder is that too few symptoms of hypoma- nia are present to meet criteria for the full bipolar II syndrome, although the duration is sufficient at 4 or more days.
Anxious Distress Specifier In the chapter on bipolar and related disorders and the chapter on depressive disorders, a specifier for anxious distress is delineated. This specifier is intended to identify patients with anxiety symptoms that are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria.
Depressive Disorders DSM-5 contains several new depressive disorders, including disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. To address concerns about potential overdiagnosis and overtreat- ment of bipolar disorder in children, a new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, is includ- ed for children up to age 18 years who exhibit persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol. Based on strong scientific evidence, premenstrual dysphoric disorder has been moved from DSM-IV Appendix B, “Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study,” to the main body of DSM-5. Finally, DSM-5 conceptualizes chronic forms of depression in a somewhat modified way. What was referred to as dysthymia in DSM-IV now falls under the category of persistent depressive dis- order, which includes both chronic major depressive disorder and the previous dysthymic disorder. An inability to find scientifically meaningful differences between these two conditions led to their combi- nation with specifiers included to identify different pathways to the diagnosis and to provide continuity with DSM-IV.
Major Depressive Disorder Neither the core criterion symptoms applied to the diagnosis of major depressive episode nor the req- uisite duration of at least 2 weeks has changed from DSM-IV. Criterion A for a major depressive episode in DSM-5 is identical to that of DSM-IV, as is the requirement for clinically significant distress or impair- ment in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, although this is now listed as Criterion B rather than Criterion C. The coexistence within a major depressive episode of at least three manic symptoms (insufficient to satisfy criteria for a manic episode) is now acknowledged by the specifier “with mixed features.” The presence of mixed features in an episode of major depressive disorder in-
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 5
creases the likelihood that the illness exists in a bipolar spectrum; however, if the individual concerned has never met criteria for a manic or hypomanic episode, the diagnosis of major depressive disorder is retained.
Bereavement Exclusion In DSM-IV, there was an exclusion criterion for a major depressive episode that was applied to depres- sive symptoms lasting less than 2 months following the death of a loved one (i.e., the bereavement exclusion). This exclusion is omitted in DSM-5 for several reasons. The first is to remove the implication that bereavement typically lasts only 2 months when both physicians and grief counselors recognize that the duration is more commonly 1–2 years. Second, bereavement is recognized as a severe psy- chosocial stressor that can precipitate a major depressive episode in a vulnerable individual, generally beginning soon after the loss. When major depressive disorder occurs in the context of bereavement, it adds an additional risk for suffering, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal ideation, poorer somatic health, worse interpersonal and work functioning, and an increased risk for persistent complex bereavement disorder, which is now described with explicit criteria in Conditions for Further Study in DSM-5 Section III. Third, bereavement-related major depression is most likely to occur in individuals with past personal and family histories of major depressive episodes. It is genetically influenced and is associated with similar personality characteristics, patterns of comorbidity, and risks of chronicity and/or recurrence as non–bereavement-related major depressive episodes. Finally, the depressive symptoms associated with bereavement-related depression respond to the same psychosocial and medication treatments as non–bereavement-related depression. In the criteria for major depressive disorder, a detailed footnote has replaced the more simplistic DSM-IV exclusion to aid clinicians in making the critical distinction be- tween the symptoms characteristic of bereavement and those of a major depressive episode. Thus, al- though most people experiencing the loss of a loved one experience bereavement without developing a major depressive episode, evidence does not support the separation of loss of a loved one from other stressors in terms of its likelihood of precipitating a major depressive episode or the relative likelihood that the symptoms will remit spontaneously.
Specifiers for Depressive Disorders Suicidality represents a critical concern in psychiatry. Thus, the clinician is given guidance on assess- ment of suicidal thinking, plans, and the presence of other risk factors in order to make a determination of the prominence of suicide prevention in treatment planning for a given individual. A new specifier to indicate the presence of mixed symptoms has been added across both the bipolar and the depressive disorders, allowing for the possibility of manic features in individuals with a diagnosis of unipolar de- pression. A substantial body of research conducted over the last two decades points to the importance of anxiety as relevant to prognosis and treatment decision making. The “with anxious distress” specifier gives the clinician an opportunity to rate the severity of anxious distress in all individuals with bipolar or depressive disorders.
Anxiety Disorders The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorder no longer includes obsessive-compulsive disorder (which is included with the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders) or posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder (which is included with the trauma- and stressor-related disorders). However, the sequential order of these chapters in DSM-5 reflects the close relationships among them.
6 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, and Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) Changes in criteria for agoraphobia, specific phobia, and social anxiety disorder (social phobia) include deletion of the requirement that individuals over age 18 years recognize that their anxiety is excessive or unreasonable. This change is based on evidence that individuals with such disorders often overesti- mate the danger in “phobic” situations and that older individuals often misattribute “phobic” fears to aging. Instead, the anxiety must be out of proportion to the actual danger or threat in the situation, af- ter taking cultural contextual factors into account. In addition, the 6-month duration, which was limited to individuals under age 18 in DSM-IV, is now extended to all ages. This change is intended to minimize overdiagnosis of transient fears.
Panic Attack The essential features of panic attacks remain unchanged, although the complicated DSM-IV terminol- ogy for describing different types of panic attacks (i.e., situationally bound/cued, situationally predis- posed, and unexpected/uncued) is replaced with the terms unexpected and expected panic attacks. Panic attacks function as a marker and prognostic factor for severity of diagnosis, course, and comor- bidity across an array of disorders, including but not limited to anxiety disorders. Hence, panic attack can be listed as a specifier that is applicable to all DSM-5 disorders.
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia Panic disorder and agoraphobia are unlinked in DSM-5. Thus, the former DSM-IV diagnoses of panic disorder with agoraphobia, panic disorder without agoraphobia, and agoraphobia without history of panic disorder are now replaced by two diagnoses, panic disorder and agoraphobia, each with separate criteria. The co-occurrence of panic disorder and agoraphobia is now coded with two diagnoses. This change recognizes that a substantial number of individuals with agoraphobia do not experience panic symptoms. The diagnostic criteria for agoraphobia are derived from the DSM-IV descriptors for agora- phobia, although endorsement of fears from two or more agoraphobia situations is now required, be- cause this is a robust means for distinguishing agoraphobia from specific phobias. Also, the criteria for agoraphobia are extended to be consistent with criteria sets for other anxiety disorders (e.g., clinician judgment of the fears as being out of proportion to the actual danger in the situation, with a typical duration of 6 months or more).
Specific Phobia The core features of specific phobia remain the same, but there is no longer a requirement that indi- viduals over age 18 years must recognize that their fear and anxiety are excessive or unreasonable, and the duration requirement (“typically lasting for 6 months or more”) now applies to all ages. Although they are now referred to as specifiers, the different types of specific phobia have essentially remained unchanged.
Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) The essential features of social anxiety disorder (social phobia) (formerly called social phobia) remain the same. However, a number of changes have been made, including deletion of the requirement that individuals over age 18 years must recognize that their fear or anxiety is excessive or unreasonable, and duration criterion of “typically lasting for 6 months or more” is now required for all ages. A more sig- nificant change is that the “generalized” specifier has been deleted and replaced with a “performance only” specifier. The DSM-IV generalized specifier was problematic in that “fears include most social situ- ations” was difficult to operationalize. Individuals who fear only performance situations (i.e., speaking
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 7
or performing in front of an audience) appear to represent a distinct subset of social anxiety disorder in terms of etiology, age at onset, physiological response, and treatment response.
Separation Anxiety Disorder Although in DSM-IV, separation anxiety disorder was classified in the section “Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence,” it is now classified as an anxiety disorder. The core features remain mostly unchanged, although the wording of the criteria has been modified to more adequately represent the expression of separation anxiety symptoms in adulthood. For example, at- tachment figures may include the children of adults with separation anxiety disorder, and avoidance behaviors may occur in the workplace as well as at school. Also, in contrast to DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria no longer specify that age at onset must be before 18 years, because a substantial number of adults report onset of separation anxiety after age 18. Also, a duration criterion—“typically lasting for 6 months or more”—has been added for adults to minimize overdiagnosis of transient fears.
Selective Mutism In DSM-IV, selective mutism was classified in the section “Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence.” It is now classified as an anxiety disorder, given that a large majority of children with selective mutism are anxious. The diagnostic criteria are largely unchanged from DSM-IV.
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders The chapter on obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, which is new in DSM-5, reflects the in- creasing evidence that these disorders are related to one another in terms of a range of diagnostic validators, as well as the clinical utility of grouping these disorders in the same chapter. New disorders include hoarding disorder, excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, substance-/medication-induced obses- sive-compulsive and related disorder, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition. The DSM-IV diagnosis of trichotillomania is now termed trichotillomania (hair-pull- ing disorder) and has been moved from a DSM-IV classification of impulse-control disorders not else- where classified to obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in DSM-5.
Specifiers for Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders The “with poor insight” specifier for obsessive-compulsive disorder has been refined in DSM-5 to allow a distinction between individuals with good or fair insight, poor insight, and “absent insight/delusional” obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs (i.e., complete conviction that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are true). Analogous “insight” specifiers have been included for body dysmorphic disorder and hoarding disorder. These specifiers are intended to improve differential diagnosis by emphasizing that individuals with these two disorders may present with a range of insight into their disorder-related be- liefs, including absent insight/delusional symptoms. This change also emphasizes that the presence of absent insight/delusional beliefs warrants a diagnosis of the relevant obsessive-compulsive or related disorder, rather than a schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder. The “tic-related” specifier for obsessive-compulsive disorder reflects a growing literature on the diagnostic validity and clinical utility of identifying individuals with a current or past comorbid tic disorder, because this comorbidity may have important clinical implications.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder For DSM-5 body dysmorphic disorder, a diagnostic criterion describing repetitive behaviors or mental
8 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
acts in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance has been added, consistent with data indicating the prevalence and importance of this symptom. A “with muscle dysmorphia” specifier has been added to reflect a growing literature on the diagnostic validity and clini- cal utility of making this distinction in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The delusional vari- ant of body dysmorphic disorder (which identifies individuals who are completely convinced that their perceived defects or flaws are truly abnormal appearing) is no longer coded as both delusional disor- der, somatic type, and body dysmorphic disorder; in DSM-5 this presentation is designated only as body dysmorphic disorder with the absent insight/delusional beliefs specifier.
Hoarding Disorder Hoarding disorder is a new diagnosis in DSM-5. DSM-IV lists hoarding as one of the possible symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and notes that extreme hoarding may occur in obsessive- compulsive disorder. However, available data do not indicate that hoarding is a variant of obsessive- compulsive disorder or another mental disorder. Instead, there is evidence for the diagnostic validity and clinical utility of a separate diagnosis of hoarding disorder, which reflects persistent difficulty dis- carding or parting with possessions due to a perceived need to save the items and distress associated with discarding them. Hoarding disorder may have unique neurobiological correlates, is associated with significant impairment, and may respond to clinical intervention.
Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder) Trichotillomania was included in DSM-IV, although “hair-pulling disorder” has been added parentheti- cally to the disorder’s name in DSM-5.
Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder is newly added to DSM-5, with strong evidence for its diagnostic validity and clinical utility.
Substance/Medication-Induced Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorder and Obsessive-Compul- sive and Related Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition DSM-IV included a specifier “with obsessive-compulsive symptoms” in the diagnoses of anxiety disor- ders due to a general medical condition and substance-induced anxiety disorders. Given that obses- sive-compulsive and related disorders are now a distinct category, DSM-5 includes new categories for substance-/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder and for obsessive-compul- sive and related disorder due to another medical condition. This change is consistent with the intent of DSM-IV, and it reflects the recognition that substances, medications, and medical conditions can pres- ent with symptoms similar to primary obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.
Other Specified and Unspecified Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders DSM-5 includes the diagnoses other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder, which can include conditions such as body-focused repetitive behavior disorder and obsessional jealousy, or unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is characterized by recurrent behaviors other than hair pulling and skin picking (e.g., nail biting, lip biting, cheek chewing) and repeated attempts to decrease or stop the behaviors. Obsessional jealousy is char- acterized by nondelusional preoccupation with a partner’s perceived infidelity.
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 9
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders Acute Stress Disorder In DSM-5, the stressor criterion (Criterion A) for acute stress disorder is changed from DSM-IV. The criterion requires being explicit as to whether qualifying traumatic events were experienced directly, witnessed, or experienced indirectly. Also, the DSM-IV Criterion A2 regarding the subjective reaction to the traumatic event (e.g., “the person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror”) has been eliminated. Based on evidence that acute posttraumatic reactions are very heterogeneous and that DSM-IV’s emphasis on dissociative symptoms is overly restrictive, individuals may meet diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for acute stress disorder if they exhibit any 9 of 14 listed symptoms in these catego- ries: intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and arousal.
Adjustment Disorders In DSM-5, adjustment disorders are reconceptualized as a heterogeneous array of stress-response syndromes that occur after exposure to a distressing (traumatic or nontraumatic) event, rather than as a residual category for individuals who exhibit clinically significant distress without meeting criteria for a more discrete disorder (as in DSM-IV ). DSM-IV subtypes marked by depressed mood, anxious symp- toms, or disturbances in conduct have been retained, unchanged.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder differ significantly from those in DSM-IV. As described previously for acute stress disorder, the stressor criterion (Criterion A) is more explicit with regard to how an individual experienced “traumatic” events. Also, Criterion A2 (subjective reaction) has been eliminated. Whereas there were three major symptom clusters in DSM-IV—reexperiencing, avoid- ance/numbing, and arousal—there are now four symptom clusters in DSM-5, because the avoidance/ numbing cluster is divided into two distinct clusters: avoidance and persistent negative alterations in cognitions and mood. This latter category, which retains most of the DSM-IV numbing symptoms, also includes new or reconceptualized symptoms, such as persistent negative emotional states. The final cluster—alterations in arousal and reactivity—retains most of the DSM-IV arousal symptoms. It also includes irritable or aggressive behavior and reckless or self-destructive behavior. Posttraumatic stress disorder is now developmentally sensitive in that diagnostic thresholds have been lowered for children and adolescents. Furthermore, separate criteria have been added for children age 6 years or younger with this disorder.
Reactive Attachment Disorder The DSM-IV childhood diagnosis reactive attachment disorder had two subtypes: emotionally with- drawn/inhibited and indiscriminately social/disinhibited. In DSM-5, these subtypes are defined as distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. Both of these disorders are the result of social neglect or other situations that limit a young child’s opportunity to form selective attachments. Although sharing this etiological pathway, the two disorders differ in important ways. Because of dampened positive affect, reactive attachment disorder more closely re- sembles internalizing disorders; it is essentially equivalent to a lack of or incompletely formed preferred attachments to caregiving adults. In contrast, disinhibited social engagement disorder more closely resembles ADHD; it may occur in children who do not necessarily lack attachments and may have es- tablished or even secure attachments. The two disorders differ in other important ways, including cor- relates, course, and response to intervention, and for these reasons are considered separate disorders.
10 • Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
Dissociative Disorders Major changes in dissociative disorders in DSM-5 include the following: 1) derealization is included in the name and symptom structure of what previously was called depersonalization disorder and is now called depersonalization/derealization disorder, 2) dissociative fugue is now a specifier of dissociative amnesia rather than a separate diagnosis, and 3) the criteria for dissociative identity disorder have been changed to indicate that symptoms of disruption of identity may be reported as well as observed, and that gaps in the recall of events may occur for everyday and not just traumatic events. Also, experi- ences of pathological possession in some cultures are included in the description of identity disruption.
Dissociative Identity Disorder Several changes to the criteria for dissociative identity disorder have been made in DSM-5. First, Criterion A has been expanded to include certain possession-form phenomena and functional neurological symp- toms to account for more diverse presentations of the disorder. Second, Criterion A now specifically states that transitions in identity may be observable by others or self-reported. Third, according to Criterion B, in- dividuals with dissociative identity disorder may have recurrent gaps in recall for everyday events, not just for traumatic experiences. Other text modifications clarify the nature and course of identity disruptions.
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders In DSM-5, somatoform disorders are now referred to as somatic symptom and related disorders. In DSM-IV, there was significant overlap across the somatoform disorders and a lack of clarity about their boundaries. These disorders are primarily seen in medical settings, and nonpsychiatric physicians found the DSM-IV somatoform diagnoses problematic to use. The DSM-5 classification reduces the number of these disorders and subcategories to avoid problematic overlap. Diagnoses of somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder have been removed.
Somatic Symptom Disorder DSM-5 better recognizes the complexity of the interface between psychiatry and medicine. Individu- als with somatic symptoms plus abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors may or may not have a diagnosed medical condition. The relationship between somatic symptoms and psychopathology exists along a spectrum, and the arbitrarily high symptom count required for DSM-IV somatization disorder did not accommodate this spectrum. The diagnosis of somatization disorder was essentially based on a long and complex symptom count of medically unexplained symptoms. Individuals previously diag- nosed with somatization disorder will usually meet DSM-5 criteria for somatic symptom disorder, but only if they have the maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that define the disorder, in addition to their somatic symptoms.
In DSM-IV, the diagnosis undifferentiated somatoform disorder had been created in recognition that somatization disorder would only describe a small minority of “somatizing” individuals, but this disor- der did not prove to be a useful clinical diagnosis. Because the distinction between somatization disor- der and undifferentiated somatoform disorder was arbitrary, they are merged in DSM-5 under somatic symptom disorder, and no specific number of somatic symptoms is required.
Medically Unexplained Symptoms DSM-IV criteria overemphasized the importance of an absence of a medical explanation for the somatic symptoms. Unexplained symptoms are present to various degrees, particularly in conversion disorder,
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 • 11
but somatic symptom disorders can also accompany diagnosed medical disorders. The reliability of medically unexplained symptoms is limited, and grounding a diagnosis on the absence of an explana- tion is problematic and reinforces mind -body dualism. The DSM-5 classification defines disorders on the basis of positive symptoms (i.e., distressing somatic symptoms plus abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in response to these symptoms). Medically unexplained symptoms do remain a key fea- ture in conversion disorder and pseudocyesis because it is possible to demonstrate definitively in such disorders that the symptoms are not consistent with medical pathophysiology.
Hypochondriasis and Illness Anxiety Disorder Hypochondriasis has been eliminated as a disorder, in part because the name was perceived as pejora- tive and not conducive to an effective therapeutic relationship. Most individuals who would previously have been diagnosed with hypochondriasis have significant somatic symptoms in addition to their high health anxiety, and would now receive a DSM-5 diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder. In DSM-5, indi- viduals with high health anxiety without somatic symptoms would receive a diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder (unless their health anxiety was better explained by a primary anxiety disorder, such as gener- alized anxiety disorder).
Pain Disorder DSM-5 takes a different approach to the important clinical realm of individuals with pain. In DSM-IV, the pain disorder diagnoses assume that some pains are associated solely with psychological factors, some with medical diseases or injuries, and some with both. There is a lack of evidence that such distinctions can be made with reliability and validity, and a large body of research has demonstrated that psycho- logical factors influence all forms of pain. Most individuals with chronic pain attribute their pain to a combination of factors, including somatic, psychological, and environmental influences. In DSM-5, some individuals with chronic pain would be appropriately diagnosed as having somatic symptom disorder, with predominant pain. For others, psychological factors affecting other medical conditions or an ad- justment disorder would be more appropriate.
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