Write an abstract of a reasearch paper

A Proposed Method of Abstract Preparation

Abstracts written in this format tend to run from 150 to 250 words rarely going beyond 250 words. Remember, the more you write the more he has to edit and the better chance you have to do something wrong.

Your abstract must begin with a citation for the article you are writing on. This citation must follow the format laid out in the journal Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management. Miller will edit the citation just as hard as the text. Be sure to follow the format precisely (Every comma and period in its place).

Sentence:

1)This sentence should catch the reader. It should be a statement of fact that lays the primary foundation as to why the paper was written.

2)This sentence must back up the first sentence as well as lead into the third. Sometimes you can combine sentences one and two and achieve a better flow.

3)State the hypothesis. If there are multiple hypotheses this may take more then one sentence.

4)From here the sentence numbers can very depending on the extent of the study. This sentence should begin to explain field/laboratory methods. Do not go into great depth here. If the reader wants more they can read the article. Just give the basic information and move on. This may take more then one sentence. If statistical analysis is of great importance to the article you may want to place a sentence stating what tools were used.

5)Now you are ready to give the results. Try to avoid bullets. Make sure that this part flows. This can be difficult because you may not fully understand the results.

6)The ending of the abstract should be an answer to the hypothesis. Remember, rarely is anything ever proven. Use wording like; “This study suggests……………”.

Cope, W.G., Bartsch, M.R., Rada, R.G., Balogh, S.J., Rupprecht, J.E., Young, R.D., Johnson, D.K., 1999. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Environmental Science and Technology 33, 4385-4390.

The Upper Mississippi River has been contaminated with high levels of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by point and nonpoint sources resulting in elevated contaminant levels in fish and macroinvertebrates. This study investigated the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a sentinel species and assessed the bioavailability of Hg, Cd, and PCBs in the Mississippi River. Zebra mussels were collected on artificial substrates from 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN to Muscatine, IA. Elevated levels of Hg, Cd, and PCBs were found in zebra muscle tissues after a 143-day exposure. Mercury levels ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and cadmium from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. The composition of PCB congeners was similar throughout the river. This study suggests that zebras muscles are a sentinel species in the Mississippi River and may be important in trophic transfer of contaminants due to their increasing importance as a food source for certain fish and waterfowl.

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